Reissued Patent RE34
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RE340000-00-00RE000034.pdf/.5“/zdcrf /, ,2/A925 52:; A57//?Zz7z2g /E2/J: .57‘/22%’. ~/H 7 7 5/ya ./§73Z2$'u’c;«.>=a2Q/5}//zg /84; A 62:-ue qflg/. J »5'ca{e gf 129:2. N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. D. C. A% % % 4>?6f,';q5?2aexfr A57/7147//g 5 M /fzzpzf ?r/zfyzya J/72/2 .2’/44. % /?5Z}£‘/.r'c2@4f./*2’/.7.xq 1294/ 3 cc: Ina .::‘¢»_a::¢_~,I;..' 7 L‘ ?—. - L I .1 , ? 1-‘ :' I *7 “LI ~u ~u i E: 2 H :3 ‘=5 I 2’ N. PETERS. PHOTU-LITHDGRAWEH. WASHINGTON. D C. UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. STEPHEN H. LONG, OF MARIETTA, GEORGIA. HWPROVEMENT IN WOODEN-FRAME BRACE-BRlD:GE‘S. Specification forining part of Letters Patent No. 1,398, dated l\'oveinber 7, 1839; Reissue No. 34, dated July 20, 18-11. 2'0 all whono it may c07wc7"7L.- Be it known that I, STEPHEN H. LONG, of the United States cngineers,l1ave invented cer- tain Iniprovements in the Construction of i\Vooden or Frame Bridges, the objects of which are greatcrsimpl icity, economy, and efficiency in tlie mode of bridge-building, and in the ar- rangement of the parts of bridges, than have hitherto been attained by any combination of principles or arrangement of parts heretofore adopted in structures of this nature. The several parts of the bridge to which said in.iprovenients relate are the strings and their splices, the posts, the main braces, the counter—braces, and the arelrbraces of a truss- frame, and also the manner of trussing or straining the truss-fraincs. The several parts above enumerated have the same relation to the bridge, and are in- tended to impart a similar efficiency in sus- taining it, as those designated by the same names in the several patents obtained by me for wooden or l'ra1ne bridges, and to which rel'ercnce maybe had. These parts, however, in the structure herein described, vary ina- terially in their relative and especially in the transverse dimensions of the timber used from those contemplated and described in the patents above cited. Instead of timbers of various sizes and of nearly a square l'orm,the several parts alluded to are to be uiiiform, or nearly so, in all their transverse dimensions, a transverse section of each timber of all the parts having the form of a. parallelogram, varying from two to four inches by eight to twelve or ?fteeninches, ac- cording to the length of the bridge-span, the weight of the load to be sustained upon the bridge, and otlitr circumstances connected with these considerations. Instead ofnotches or recesses in the string- pieces and posts, by means of which these parts are locked together, and instead of wedges at the insertions of the posts between the string-pieces, the connections between the posts and strings are el'1°ected.by means of gibs and keys passing entirely through the strings transversely thereof, and at the same time resting in notches prepared for the re- ception of the gib and key in the back of the post, or in the side opposite to the points or steps at which the main braces communicate their thrust against the posts, the notches serving to regulate and maintain the relations, with respect to distance, between the upper and-lower strings, the gibs serving to clamp the string-pieces together, and the keys serv- ing not only to con?ne the strings to the posts, but also to impart the requisite trussing to the truss-frame, and at the same time to force the counter-braces into appropriate action. Cog- gles or pieces of timber about two feet long, three inches thick, and three or four inches wide are inserted in the spaces between the string —picees and immediately behind the posts, for the purpose of aiding the gibs and keys in counteracting the thrust of the main braces. The coggles are applied subsequently to the adjustments effected by trussing, being confined at one end by appropriate notches in the posts for their reception, and at the other by treenails passing through them and the string—pieces. The main braces are connected to the posts by means of notches or steps in the latter, adapted to the reception of tuscums at the ends of the former. Instead oftuscums and steps, as described in the preceding para- graph, steps of cast-iron, with appropriate lugs or hearings on opposite sides of each step, adapted to suitable receptacles for the same in the posts and braces, as represented in the accompanying drawings, may be sub- stituted for the purpose of receiving and re- sisting the action to which these parts are subjected. The counter-braces occupy the entire distance between the upper and lower strings diagonally of each panel of the truss- frame, and are confined between the posts by treenails passing through them and the posts near the strings. They may also be con?ned to the main braces by treenails passing through them at the intersections of the former with the latter. The counter—braces are brought into their appropriate action by straining upon the gibs and keys of the strings,in the manner before explained. three or more pieces from a bench or bolster attached to the abutment or pier below the bridge, pass through the lower string in two or more pieces within the openings or inter- stices occasioned by the posts and main braces, enter the first, second, or third panel of the truss-frame, counting from each end of the bridge-span, and thrust against the further- The arch-braces rise in‘ ’ brace is to thrust ?rmly against a plate of the 34 most posts of the panel entered, being inter- cepted by these posts, against which the thrust of the arch-braces is communicated in part by means of appropriate notches in the former and corresponding tuscums in the latter. The action of the arch-brace is continued past the posts by similar pieces and con- nections within the next panel, and by the aid of a splicing-piece situated between the posts and extending from the counter-brace of the panel ?rst entered to that of the panel beyond, and occupying the space between the side pieces of the arch-brace. Thus con- tinued, the arch-brace extends to the head of the next main braces, and is connected with them near the upper string by means of cor- responding tuscums and notches. In order to render the action of the arch-brace more cer- tain and efficent, another splicing-piece is in- serted, extending from the counter-brace last mentioned to the head of the next counter- brace, and occupying, as before, the space be- tween the eheeks or side pieces of the arch- brace. The several parts of the arch-brace situated within the truss-frame, as also the posts and main braces at the crossings or in- tersections of the arch-braces, are ?rmly united by treenails passing entirely through the sev- eral pieces of which they are composed. The interior portions of the arch-braces situated beneath truss-frames are respectively fur- nished with a series of gibs and keys, which serve not only to con?ne together the pieces of which they are composed, but also to ren- der the arch-braces extensible, or the reverse, as may be found necessary, either to give ap- propriate action to the arch-brace or to in- crease or diminish the camber of the bridge. In addition to the inferior portions of the arch-braces above named, I also sometimes employ what I denominate “side arch-braces, 7’ and these rise from the lower string-pieces at or near the ?rst, second, or third set of posts from each abutment or pier, and extend ob- liquely upward, embracing each of the sides of the truss-frame to the upper string crossing one, two, or more panels, as may be deemed most expedient. The head of each side arch- same transverse dimensions, situated imme- diately below and parallel to the upper string. The foot of each side arch-brace is to thrust against a sill of similar transverse dimensions resting edgewise on the lower strings and ex- tending through a distance of one or more pan- els of the bridge. The side arch-brace plates and sills must be ?rmly connected with the truss-frame by means of bolts, clamps, tree- nails, or other device passing through them and through the posts and main braces at their several crossings. At all junctions, either of the brace with the plate or with the sill, and at all intermediate joints,a thin plate or sheet of iron should be inserted, in order to prevent the ?bers or grain of one timber from pene- trating between those of the other. The splic- ings of the outside string-pieces are effected by means of wooden splicing-pieces with ap- propriate notches and corresponding tuscums, or with coggles of iron or wood situated in ap- propriate notches prepared for their reception in the splicing-piece and string-piece, and may be clamped together by gibs and keys, or by screw - bolts passing entirely through the strings. The central string-piece may also be spliced in a similar manner, or by means of treenails of wood passing entirely through the strings, no other clampings being required in this case. The lateral bracing is effected by means of locked lattice—work banded by rib- bands on both sides of each truss-frame of the bridge,both above and below the lateral braces. The .rib-bands are con?ned to the lateral braces by treenails passing entirely through them and the braces at every intersection of the former with the latter. The accompanying drawings will serve to illustrate and make known the manner in which I construct the respective pa-rts of my brace-bridge and carry my improvements into operation. In Figure 1, A B 0 D represent a side view of part of a truss-frame, C D being the arch- bracc, with its lower end, 0, resting on a bench or bolster on the abutment or pier be- low the bridge, it it ii showing the situation of the gibs and keys by which the respective thicknesses of timber of which the arch-brace consists are con?ned together. In Fig. 2, A B C D are an enlarged view of a part of such frame. drawn to a scale suiti- ciently large to exhibit the mode of connect- ing the respective parts thereof. 0 D are the arch-brace. E E are the main braces, F F the counter-braces, and G G the posts. The timbers constituting the arch-brace are con- nected at g g with the posts G by means of tuscums and notches,and with one of the main braces E by similar 1neans,as shown at e. The main braces E E are likewise connected with the posts G G, both above and below, bylikc means. The posts G G extend a few inches above the upper and below the lower strings. These strings consist each of three thicknesses of stuff, as shown at H, Fig. 3. The posts GG and the main bracesEE are each of them dou- ble, and their ends are received into thespaces between the center and the two outer string- pieces. The counter-braces FF are single and abut against the center string - pieces both above and below. They are treenailed at each end to the posts G G, and also to the main braces where they pass between them. The space between the two pieces of timber which constitute the arch-brace C D, I usually ?ll up by inserting what I denominate “splicing- timber,” and connect the whole together by passing treenails through them. It has been mentioned above that n 71- ’IL in Fig. 1 show the situation of the gibs and keys by which the respective timbers composing the arch-brace are connected together. Such ' c c c c, Fig. 2.) The manner of constru 34 gibs and keys are also employed for the same purpose in various other parts of the struct- ure. Thus, for example, they are employed in mortises through the timbers, (shown at cting these gibs and keys, and of inserting and ?x- ing them so as to con?ne the timbers to- gether,will be manifest upon reference to Fig. 5, where they are represented on an enlarged scale. They are also shown as passing through the string-pieces in Fig. 2 and through the arch-braces in Fig. 4. Between the string- pieces, and immediately behind and in con- tact with the posts, I insert coggles or blocks of timber, (represented byb b b, Fig. 2,) which I fasten in place by treenails. These are for the purpose of sustaining the posts and pre- venting their yielding or splitting at the gib- notches. The mortises c c 0 (shown on the upper and lower string-pieces in Fig. 2) in- tersect the posts in those parts, and the posts are necessarily notched out to allow the gibs and keys to pass on their sides opposite to the main braces. These notches in the posts serve, as above remarked, to maintain a relative dis- tance between the upper and lower string- pieces, to clamp and con?ne them together, and to impart the requisite power of trussing to the truss-fruine. Fig. 3 exhibits different views of a portion of the string-pieces, showing the manner of splicing them, and also the relative positions of the string-pieces. posts, and braces as they project into and are connected with each other. These representations apply equally to the upper and the lower portions of the truss- frame. Fig. 4 represents a portion of the arch-brace with the manner of applying the gibs and keys thereto, by which it may be extended or con- tracted at pleasure, the several mortises for the gibs and keys being at equal distances from each other. From this arrangementthe cam- ber of the truss-frames may be increased or diminished, as may be required. The center and the two outer pieces of the ?ve thick- nesses (represented as clamped together in Fig. 4) are those ._which rest upon the bench or bol- ster of the abutment or pier. The other two pieces are those which pass up into the truss- frame. Instead of the notches and tuscums formed in the timber for connecting’ the main braces and the posts, I sometimes employ steps or bearings of cast-iron, which are furnished with lugs or tuscums projecting out from each of their sides, and entering corresponding . I notches made in the posts and braces. These are shown in place at a a, Fig. 2, and sepa- rately on an enlarged scale at Fi g. 6. Similar steps or pieces of cast -i ron may be 3 employed for splicing and uniting the string- pieces, being substituted for the intermediate notched splicing-pieces of wood, (represented as used at H H, Fig. 3.) Fig. 7 represents the truss-frame of my brace-bridge with the side arch-braces com- bined with the other parts thereof. In this ?gure I have shown two inferior arch-braces, A and B; and I have also shown a double set of side arch-braces, this part being represent- ed in dotted lines. The outer braces are marked 0 C, and the inner ones 0’ O’. The outer braces have their thrust at their upper ends against ‘the plate E E, and the foot of each against the additional sill-piece D D. The second or inner pair of side arch-braces, O’ C’, are shown as abutting against each other at their upper ends, and at their lower ends against the piece D D. Having thus fully described the manner in which I construct my brace-bridge and con- nect the respective parts thereof together, what I claim as new therein, and desire to se- cure by Letters Patent, is the following—— that is to say: ‘ 1. The forming of the truss-frames of bridges by connecting and combining string - pieces, posts, main and counter braces, and arch- braces, by the aid of gibs and keys construct- ed as set forth, using therewith such bolts or treenails as I may deem proper, but not in- tending to claim the use of bolts and treenails as making any part of my invention. 2. The employment or use of the gibs and keys formed in the manner set forth, and pass- ing through the string-pieces and into the posts near their ends, for the purpose of truss- ing and straining the frame generally. 3. The manner of arranging the arch-braces so as to dimin_ish or to increase the camber of the truss-frames by the employment of gibs and keys passing through those portions thereof which constitute the lower parts of said arch- braces. ' 4. The construction and employment of a hearing or step of cast-iron, furnished with lugs or tuscums which are let into correspond- ing notches in the head and foot of the main braces and the posts, in the manner and for the purpose set forth. . 5. The combining with the truss-frames, constructed as herein set forth, the side arch- braces embracing between them the respect- ive posts and braces over which they pass, and connected therewith, as herein shown and fully made known. STEPHEN H. LONG. Witnesses: THOS. P. JONES, CLEMT. T. Coorn.