Reissued Patent RE48
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RE480000-00-00RE000048.pdfI. ORR. Heating. Stove._ No. 48. ‘ Reissued Nov. '12, 1842. €33/;( EW- 7VE'2§7ze,5¢s es « « .[7zzre7zz7o7-.~ f‘4l’~oE A ’ > c%«a.a.c/Q?‘-r“’“> N. PETERS. Fhoto—L'n6-ograplur. wauéagtm D. C. . eight inches wide. UNITED" STATES PAf‘rEN*r OFFICE. ISAAC ORR, OF GEORGETOVVN, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. IMPROVEMENT LN AIR-TIGHT STOIVES. Speci?cation forming part of Letters Patent dated January 20, 1836; Reissue No. 415, dated Novenibcr To all whom it 72mg c077,ce7'n,: Be it known that I, ISAAC ORR, of George- town, in the District of Columbia, have in- vented a certain new and useful Improvement in Stoves for Heating Rooms and for other Purposes, called the "Air—Tight Stove,” of which the following is a speci?cation. , The main objects of my invention are to keep a store of air and fuel hot and other- wise prepared in the highest useful degree for combustion; to cause the same hot air in the stove to circulate many times to, through,and around the fuel and ?re; to keep the air of the room soft, moist, and mild in the highest useful degree, and to keep a low ?re burning steadily for several days without tending. - The following is a full and exact description of my invention: The said air-tight stove, when intended for burning wood or charcoal, is represented in the drawing hereunto an- nexed numbered 1. The stove may be made of Russia sheet-iron or other sheet or other thin metal; but Russia iron is considered the best material. A stove of the size represent- ed in the drawing may be made of one sheet of iron about four and ahalffeet long. and twenty- The two ends should be clinched together as nearly as possible air- tight. It should be made of an elliptical shape, about two-thirds as wide as it is long. It is best to blunt the ends of the ellipse; but the sides should be full. This is considered the most convenient shape, though any other curve may be used, and a stove of which the body was not curved might be used, though not so advantageously. The sheet so formed is for the sides and ends of the stove, and may be joined either in the middle of the back, which I consider the best place,or in any other part of the circumference. The top of the stove,as well as the bottom,may be made ?at or curved, of sheet-iron or other thin metal, and should be ?rmly fastened on as nearly as possible air- tight. A stove of the size represented in the drawing is su?icient for an apartment of twelve or fourteen feetsquare and ten or twelve feet high. They may be made larger or smaller in proportion to the size of the room to be heated. On that end of the stove which would be east if the stove- back were north an opening should be cut for the door, so that when the 152, 1842. door is done its opening will be about six inches wide and eight inches high and about nine inches clear above the bottom of the stove. The door being thus placed,there will be a large space in the stove above the top of the door, and of course above the fuel, which may be called the “air-chamber.” If the door is thin,it must be a sliding door,made as nearly as possible air—tight when closed,with a stout handle that will do to rap. If the door be thick, it may be a hinge-door,which is best of east-iron, made to shut as tightly as possible on a frame of cast-iron riveted tightly to the stove. If a sliding door be used, the lower end of it must project inward, so as. to keep , in the black ?uid, which would otherwise run down and deface the outside of the stove; or a projection may be made on the outside of the stove, under the door,to catch the black ?uid; and in a east-iron door the under part ought to project sufficiently into the stove for the same purpose. If a sliding door be used, it will need no aperture in it or under it for ad- mitting the air; but if a hinge-door be usedit is best to have a tight register either in the door or close below it. The door is placed on the side indicated as the most convenient in the ‘using; but it may with equal effect be placed on the other end or on the side oppo- site the funnel, provided it is raised as high from the bottom of the stove. The ?ue of the stove should be placed near the middle of the stove-back, so as to have the top of its opening an inch or two above the top of the door, and should be made as nearly as possi- ble air-tight at its junction with the stove, as well as in its circumference. "The ?ue should be about ?ve inches in diameter and from ten inches to three feet long, according to circum-~ stances. The farther the stove stands from the chimney the morefreely the air circulates behind it, and consequently warms the ap- partment better. The damper should be placed in the ?ue about four inches from the back of the stove, though a few inches difference in distance will make but little difference in ef- feet. The axis of the damper should be strong enough to bear a wrench. The axis of the damper should be horizontal or sloping and at right angles to the axis of the ?ue.’ The top of the damper should open from the stove, in order to let out the hot air over it and the 2' as fresh air for the ?re under it, when desired, I as in warm or moderate weather. The stove should be raised by feet from ‘four to six inches from the ?oor. The higher it is raised the better it will warm the room in consequence of the freer circulation of the air underneath; but it warms a person’s feet better to be low down. If the stove be made of more than one sheet of iron, the upper sheet should run into the lower at the joint, as should any joints of funnel where it is used,in order that the black ?uid which is made may run inward. The mode of using the stove to the best ad- vantage is as follows: Stop your ?re-place or chimney, (best with brick,) so as to make and keep it perfectly air-tight, (by putty, if nec- essary,)exeept an opening with a collar of the exact size to admit the stove-pipe, and an- other opening, best also with a collar, at the bottom, immediately below the stove-pipe and four or ?ve inches across, to serve as a venti- lator. Its door may be of thin light wood, both sides well ?tted and covered with soft woolen cloth, and set on edge or nicely hung on wires, so as to ?ap readily; or the whole ventilator may be of metal; but its joints must be very tight. All the joints of the stove and ?re—place should be made and kept as tight as possible, for both health and economy de- pend upon it. The passage of the heat into the room and of the air about the stove should be free and unobstructed. The larger the stove the better and more economical; and it should never be less than to hold wood for thirty—six hours, and yet not be half full. Do 11ot bend or batter it and press or rap the door inward in moving it. Stove—pipe is bad, but if it must be used it must be very tight, upright, or considerably sloping, and its joints must- enter downward. Kindle the ?re at ?rst as in any common stove. VVhen this is once done, so that coals are formed in the morning, shut the ventilator, move the coals and brands (never less than a peck) well to the front of the stove and the ashes to the ends of the stove, cover the middle hollow with the ?at sides of one or two sticks, and then put in so much hard dry wood (large and close as con- venient) that there will be sure to be enough for at least thirty-six hours. If the ?re rages, shut the door a moment to check it. When the ?re is more than hot enough,shut the door within about the eighth of an inch, or enough (found by trial) to keep the ?re at the right‘ heat, and then shut the damper as close as it may be without the smell of smoke above the stove. Keep the room perfectly comfortable; but comfortably cool instead of comfortably hot is best for the health. Regulate by the damper in warm weather. At bed-time shut the door tight and leave the damper just so far open (found by trial) as to keep the ?re alive. If it cannot be checked enough, have the stove made tighter. Leave open the ven- tilator at night—wholly in warm or good weather and partly in cold or bad. The air of the room may be freshened at any time in the day by opening the ventilator for a few minutes; but with neat people this is rarely needed. Take the ashes out of the stove once in two or four weeks. They lessen the effect. Once in a month or two bring the whole stove nearly to a red heat by a brisk ?re, and as soon as it is cooled scrape off the soot with a pretty sharp shovel or other in- strument, and scrape the pipe about the dam- per with a case or other knife. ‘To stop puffs or explosions, shut the door and open the dam- per till t-he ?re is quelled. To ‘avoid them wholly, do not raise the ?re too suddenly nor too high. To stop smoke, open the damper wide and make the chimney hotter. The principle or character by which the stove above described may be distinguished from other inventions may bestated as fol- lows: By having the stove made tight in every part, the ?reis completely under the command of the person having charge of it, and no more air is admitted than is necessary and useful. By having the aperture for the draft raised high above the ?oor of the stove, the air ad- mitted through it is not drawn directly up through the fuel, but mixes with the hot air and sinks down by its speci?c gravity to the bottom of the stove. Being expanded by passing through and near the ?re, it rises again through the ?re to the top of the stove. There it parts with its heat to the iron, and the heat is thus communicated to the apartment through the iron. The air, being cooled by the iron, sinks down by the sides of the stove, parting with its heat to them, and thus warm- ing the apartment. W hileit is thus descend- ing other air is rising to the top of the stove, and air which has just descended is again ex- panded by the ?re and again rises to the top. Aconstant circulation to, through, and around the fuel and ?re is thus kept up in the stove, and the smoke and heated air pass oft‘ very‘ slowly through the smoke-pipe, because there is not suf?cient new air admitted to carry it off rapidly, on account of the tightness of the stove, and because the aperture of the smoke- pipe, particularly if diminished by the damp- er’s being partially closed, is too small to carry off at once more than a small part of the air, which is in constant circulation. By this circulation nearly all the oxygen of the air and most of the smoke are consumed before they escape, thus making a great saving of fuel, and the air which passes through the fire is the greater part of it heated, _and thus the bad ef- fects of cold air poured on the fire are avoided. If the register or sliding door be entirely closed, cold air is admitted through the smoke-pipe on its lower side while the smoke and heated air are passing off on its upperside. The large chamber for the circulation of the smoke and air above the fuel is essential to the operation of this stove, because, if there were no such chamber, little or no circulation could take place, and the smoke and heated air would pass off too rapidly. It is also important that the stove should be made of sheet-iron or other ds '. _3. thin material, in order to have the heat rap- idly taken from the heated circulating air and smoke and transmitted to the apartment. It is also important that the smoke-pipe should be low down in the stove, for if it were at the ‘top or near the top the smoke and heated air ris- ing to the top would pass away too rapidly. It is also important that the stove should be oval or curved, because such a shapealways leaves a space between the side of the stove and the wood, through which the air may pass. The peculiar advantages and effects of t.he air-tight wood—stove may be summed up as fol- lows: The ?re is easily regulated. A store of wood sufficient for from one to seven days can be kept constantly hot, dried, and charred and slowly burning without any attention. Very little air but what is heated ever comes in con- tact with the ?re, as a store of heated air is always kept in the large air-chamber of the stove, and mixes with the fresh air admitted before it touches the ?re. By means of the circulation ofthehot air and smoke the whole stove is kept at nearly the same temperature. The temperature of the apartment is regulated with the greatest ease and a uniform tem- perature preserved for any length of time. The air of the room is rendered soft and mild, and so moist that a thick dew is often depos- ited on the windows,even in mild weather, and the air is never injured by coming in contact with red-hot iron. A cough or headache is relieved and even cured by the air. The furni- ture aud wood - work are less shrunk and cracked by the use of this stove than even by summer weather. The chimney, being closed at the ventilator and heated by day and open during the night, rapidly renews the air of the room and makes it drier and less chilly, while it is colder. A great economy of fuel is effected by this stove, as almost all t-heheat madein it is saved and given out to the apartment, instead of be- ing carried away through the ?ue. It also ef- fects a great economyof time, as it uses much less fuel and has to be supplied with fuel much less frequently than any other stove known, and as the combustion can be regulated with so great ease and certainty. , The air-tight stove, when used for burning fossil coal, is varied in some particulars from the air-tight woodstove. The annexed drawing numbered 2 presents an end perspective view of the air-tight coal- stove of the same size of the woo